This report explores different performance-based contracting approaches used in the construction sector. It also presents the Reading Procurement Framework as a tool for analysing different construction procurement routes and options.
This report, researched and produced by Constructing Excellence, provides members of the Sustainable Construction & Innovation network with an insight into the awareness, policies and working practices by a range of European public authorities for Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE).
Post Occupancy Evaluation is a structured review of the functional, operational and strategic performance of the building during occupation. It is the gathering and interpretation of both a building’s energy/technical data,space utilisation and occupier behaviour. This data is critical to ensure built assets to maximise occupier productivity with the minimum resource.
The purpose of this briefing paper is to introduce the reader to the measurement of carbon within building projects and to identify the extent of the monetisation of carbon into Whole Life Costing (WLC) appraisals.
The paper draws upon case studies in order to provide examples and best practice guidance.
From the research undertaken the majority of case studies monetised operational carbon and not embodied carbon. The monetisation of operational carbon is generally only included at the request of a client who is subjected to the associated taxes or charges (such as the UK‟s CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme). If appraised at all, embodied carbon is generally reported as a weight and considered separately to cost in any project appraisals.
The report sets out a series of recommendations for those who need or want to include carbon within project appraisals.
Compared to the procurement of a "business as usual"-solution, public procurement of innovations always involves a higher degree of risk. Therefore, most public procurers only take the risk and procure the innovation if there is reason. Two important reasons for the public authority to procure an innovative solution are the political will or the beneficial outcome that the innovation offers. The report offers a chapter with a typology for risks, a chapter where techniques of mostly implicit risk management are described and a chapter with selected recommendations for public procurers.
The processes used in both awarding and managing the delivery of a construction project can play a critical role in determining whether innovative sustainable products or techniques are included. Across Europe there are examples of public authorities who have taken a proactive approach to encouraging innovation through market engagement, specification, evaluation and relationship management, and who have successfully identified and implemented innovative solutions within construction contracts. This activity is not however widespread.
This report presents preliminary conclusions on how early market engagement (EME) and supplier relationship management (SRM) may be effective tools for driving sustainable innovation in construction procurement.
A great number of environmental assessment tools exist for use in sustainable renovation procurement: comprehensive certification schemes, process management tools, tools linked to specific technical aspects such as building material choice, and many more.
This report explores the different types available and where they may most usefully be used in the procurement process for major renovation projects.
Financing and contracting are key considerations for public authorities wishing to pursue sustainable construction projects. This first report of the working group looks at:
- European sources of funding and financing for sustainable build/retrofit projects
- Energy performance contracting, public private partnerships and concessions
A review is given of the main procurement issues, and successful cases highlighted. Questions are identified for further input from public authorities, based on their own experiences.
Whole-life costing (WLC) provides a method of justifying more sustainable approaches to construction as it enables the economic consideration of benefits such as reduced energy consumption over the operation of a building to be factored into a public authority’s investment decisions. WLC can also be a key enabler for the adoption of new and innovative sustainable construction products and techniques which may hold higher up-front costs, but offer cost efficiencies for public authorities in the medium to long term.
This report examines a number of aspects of WLC relevant to increasing innovation in sustainable construction projects:
- What WLC tools are available to public authorities?
- What are the barriers to WLC and how can they be overcome?
- How are income streams being factored into WLC decision making?
- How are public authorities forecasting future energy and utility prices as part of their WLC decisions?
This report looks at income opportunities arising from energy efficiency and renewable energy measures in buildings. The focus is on how these can be used by public authorities to make a business case for such installations in the context of whole-life costing. A critical review is given of the Spanish feed-in tariff, Italian tradeable white certificate and German joint implementation (ERU) schemes, with investment costs and payback periods examined. The report was carried out by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) on behalf of the SCI-Network.
Future energy and water prices are often the missing link in whole-life costing for sustainable and innovative buildings. This literature review looks at methods for predicting and taking these costs into account in sensitivity analysis/Net Present Value exercises. The tools and approaches currently in use in the UK are explained. The review was carried out by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) on behalf of the SCI-Network.
This document presents guidance on how to involve the user sustainable construction projects in the EU. It highlights key issues and recommendations, identifies topics for further study and gives examples of projects and pilots demonstrating user involvement in renovation processes.
The biggest energy savings for new build and renovation projects can be achieved during the design phase. Following some basic principles can help achieve significant savings.
As well as the environmental impacts caused by the production of construction materials, the choice of material also affects the health of the indoor climate. As buildings become more energy efficient, the primary energy demands of the materials themselves become ever more important.
Multifunctional facade systems offer additional functions compared to conventional facades, like advanced thermal insulation, energy generation and in the case of green facade systems an improvement of the microclimate. They are mostly used in new large-scale buildings and in the fast thermal refurbishment of buildings from the 1950's to the 1970's. Their main sustainable benefit lies in the reduction of energy demand.
Innovative cooling concepts are mainly passive cooling strategies (like a building design that reduces solar gains, innovative sunblinds, natural cooling with passive night ventilation) and active cooling strategies with solar energy. The main sustainable benefit of innovative cooling concepts lies in their low energy consumption.
Mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery ensure a continuous air exchange and control the indoor air quality. The mechanical ventilation systems help saving energy by recovering heat from exhaust air and by using energy efficient ventilation equipment.
Heat pumps potentially offer a potentially highly efficient way of generating heat in a building. They extract low levels of heat from one medium (for example, the air, water, ground or waste heat), and convert it into the high level of heat (30-50°C) necessary for water or space heating.
Solar water and space heating is well established on the European market. Increasingly solar power is also being used to power cooling systems. As cooling needs tend to be in regions with high solar gains, the potential benefits are clear.
Solar power has typically been used to provide either direct heat (solar thermal) or to generate electricity (photovoltaic). New systems are now appearing on the market which provide both. Potential efficiency and space saving gains are significant.